Categorical or qualitative outcome variables are ubiquitous. We review some supervised learning methods for classification, and see how these may be applied to observational causal inference.

Link | Type | Description |
---|---|---|

html pdf | Slides | Classification and logistic regression |

[html] Rmd | Notebook | Classification, class balance, ROC curves |

pdf html Rmd | Notebook | Gradient descent and numeric differentiation |

html | Exercises | First exercise set |

**To be updated**

- ISLR Chapter 4. This chapter is a bit lengthy, so it’s OK if you don’t carefully follow all the mathematics in sections 4.4 and 4.5 as long as you understand the concepts.
- MLstory Start Chapter 5 on optimization, read the first two sections on Optimization Basics and on Gradient Descent. You can stop when you reach Proposition 3.

- Wikipedia on Newton’s method and gradient descent (good for pictures and animations)
- CASI Chapter 4 for MLE theory, Chapter 8 sections 8.1-8.3 (more advanced material)

“A good cook gets a new knife every year; he chops! Mediocre cooks change knives monthly; they hack. My knife now has 19 years on it; it’s carved several thousand oxen and the edge is as if I had just taken it from the sharpener. Those joints have gaps, and the knife’s edge no thickness, to put something infinitesimally thin in an empty space?! Effortless! It even allows the edge wander in with ample room to play. That is why, with 19 years on it, this knife’s edge is grindstone fresh.” - Butcher Ding, the Zhuangzi

Text and figures are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 4.0. The figures that have been reused from other sources don't fall under this license and can be recognized by a note in their caption: "Figure from ...".

For attribution, please cite this work as

Loftus (2021, Oct. 8). machine learning 4 data science: 4 Classification. Retrieved from http://ml4ds.com/weeks/04-classification/

BibTeX citation

@misc{loftus20214, author = {Loftus, Joshua}, title = {machine learning 4 data science: 4 Classification}, url = {http://ml4ds.com/weeks/04-classification/}, year = {2021} }